The project aims to evaluate the impact of millet processing and value addition enterprises by women
SHGs by exploring the following research questions:
1. How does the provision of millet processing and value addition affect entrepreneurial activities (e.g.
business investments and income generation) among women in SHGs? How does it affect their decisionmaking
authority within the household and household welfare (e.g. nutrition, health, and education of
2. Are mature SHGs a necessary condition for the benefits of millet processing and value addition to
materialise or are women in newly formed self-help groups also able to benefit from such programmes?
3. Are there externalities/ spillovers of millet processing and value addition on women who are not
members of SHGs, for example in the form of increased entrepreneurial activities or employment?
4. How does the provision of millet processing and value addition affect the dynamics of SHGs, in terms
of survival, entry or exit by members, or the formation of new SHGs?
5. Does the provision of millet processing and value addition have differential effects on women with
heterogeneity in preferences or other observable characteristics?
Primary outcomes: household income, business investment, nutrient intake for children under 12 months
and their mothers, child weight-for-height Z-scores, child mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and
maternal body mass index (BMI), Project-Level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI),
five domains of empowerment: household-level decision making power on production; access to and
power over productive resources; control over the use of income; community leadership; and time
Secondary outcomes: household food consumption (smoothing), child education, dietary diversity, and
food security, subjective welfare, household’s risk aversion and ambiguity aversion, SHG level outcomes
such as age, size, internal lending volume, bank loan volume, etc.